Over the past decade, countries throughout Africa have experienced sustained economic growth. Despite this growth, almost two of every three people— or 660 million—are still living on less than $2 per day. Accelerated economic growth is needed to reduce inequality and poverty, and improve people’s lives across Africa. The experience of many countries in Asia and Latin America suggests a pathway to this accelerated economic growth. An economic window of opportunity opened in these countries as a result of a rapid decline in fertility, which increased the proportion of working-age people relative to dependent children. Countries responded by improving health and education, attracting foreign investments, and enacting economic policies that created jobs, which resulted in the accelerated economic growth that is referred to as the demographic dividend.