Malawi has made significant progress in the fight against HIV and AIDS. 90% of those living with HIV know their status and have been initiated on ART and 95% of pregnant women are screened for infection. Despite these notable successes, stemming new infections remains a concern in the country, with an estimated 32,300 annual new infections in 2019 alone according to the Global Burden of Disease. Providing HIV and AIDS services to FSWs is one important lever to reducing the spread of the disease.
This report analyses three interventions that provide HIV and AIDS services to FSWs in Malawi. Malawi has made many notable accomplishments in addressing the burden of HIV and AIDS. While overall HIV incidence has declined considerably, now estimated at 2.28 overall per 1000 population, new infections are not generalized and appear to be concentrated around youth and women (AIDSinfo/UNAIDS).
While notable progress has been made in Malawi’s efforts to meet the Millennium Development Goals surrounding child health and child survival, progress in curbing neonatal and maternal mortality and morbidity has been less substantial. The rate of progress has been less than half of that for overall child mortality, with neonatal deaths at 22 per thousand live births in 2018. Neonatal disorders come second only to HIV/AIDS in terms of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
Cost-Benefit Analysis run against the most promising singular and sets of interventions within Malawi’s environment revealed two interventions with significant promise.
In this report, we have assessed the costs and benefits of delivering improved emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) and nutritional supplements. Our analysis shows that many of these interventions have benefit-cost ratios (BCRs) of greater than 15 and could be very good uses of resources to improve maternal and neonatal health in Malawi.
Globally, public health measures like face masks, hand hygiene and maintaining social distancing have been implemented to delay and reduce local transmission of COVID-19. To date there is emerging evidence to provide effectiveness and compliance to intervention measures on COVID-19 due to rapid spread of the disease. The study synthesised evidence of community interventions and innovative practices to mitigate COVID-19 as well as previous respiratory outbreak infections which may share some aspects of transmission dynamics with COVID-19.
Demography and COVID-19 in Africa: Evidence and Policy Responses to Safeguard the Demographic Dividend
Series Synthesis and Policy Options Recommendations (Webinar 5)
This issue brief has been prepared by the African Institute for Development Policy (AFIDEP) based on the study, “Sustained reduction in third-generation cephalosporin usage in adult inpatients following introduction of an antimicrobial stewardship program in a large urban hospital in Malawi (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32060523/). The work was led by Rebecca Lester and supported by the Drivers of Resistance in Uganda and Malawi (DRUM) Consortium. The study sought to demonstrate the feasibility, acceptability and cost-saving of a stewardship program where resources are limited. With funding from the UK Global Challenges Research Fund, the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) in 2017 established the DRUM Consortium with the purpose of reducing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) spread in Uganda and Malawi. This issue brief seeks to promote and support the continued investment in antimicrobial resistance solutions.
An Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, Perception and Practice
about COVID-19 among the Kenyan Population
The impact of COVID-19 on the Demographic Dividend pillars in Africa and the lessons we can learn from Africa’s response to the pandemic.
The Impact of COVID-19 on the Africa’s Prospects of Harnessing a Demographic Dividend (Webinar 4)
Myths and misconceptions around modern contraceptives have been associated with low contraceptive uptake in sub-Saharan Africa and Kenya in particular. Addressing persistent contraceptive knowledge gaps can make a significant contribution towards improved contraceptive uptake among young women. This qualitative study therefore sought to explore and understand young people’s knowledge of modern contraception and to identify their key concerns regarding these methods.